Summit on the Prevention of Campus Sexual Assault

Conference Top

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May 2, 2018
Location: 
Rackham Graduate School
915 E. Washington Street
Ann Arbor , MI 48109
United States
Contact: 
U-M Injury Prevention Center
734-232-2105

Thank you for attending the Summit on the Prevention of Campus Sexual Assault!

Speaker presentations will be posted in the coming weeks. 

  • Click here to view the Summit Twitter story (#IPCSUMMIT2018). 

 

CONTINUING EDUCATION CREDITS

The University of Michigan Medical School is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School designates this live activity for a maximum of 7 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Michigan Medicine Department of Social Work is an approved provider with the Michigan Social Work Continuing Education Collaborative, Provider #MICEC 0056. This program has been approved for a maximum of 7.0 continuing education clock hours.

The University of Michigan Medical School is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. The University of Michigan Medical School maintains responsibility for this program and its content. This activity has been approved for 5.75 CE credits for psychologists.

Sessions approved for continuing education for psychologists:

  • Morning Session: Campus Sexual Assault: Overview, Scope of the Problem, and Risk Factors – 2.75 CE
  • Afternoon Session: Diverse Populations and Interventions for Campus Sexual Assault Prevention - 3.0 CE

SUMMIT OBJECTIVES

Learners will be able to:

  1. Use information regarding the prevalence and epidemiology of campus sexual assault to enhance screening efforts in their practices
  2. Identify key risk factors for and populations at risk for sexual assault among college students in their practice
  3. Recommend evidence-based interventions for prevention of campus sexual assault

TARGET AUDIENCE

The target audience for this event includes: practitioners in the sexual assault field (physicians, social workers, psychologists, other public health professionals), researchers, faculty, and campus stakeholders, including students.

2018 MICHIGAN MEETING, MAY 3-5

Following the conclusion of the U-M Injury Prevention Center Summit on May 2, the 2018 Michigan Meeting will take place at Rackham Graduate School. Ending Gendered Violence in School, Work, and Life: Critical Conversations at the Interasection of Therory and Practice will focus on the diverse forms and contexts of gender-based violence among adolescence and emerging adults. This meeting will be synergistic with the U-M IPC Summit on the primary prevention of campus sexual assault. Click here for more information on the 2018 Michigan Meeting.  Questions? Contact elarmstr@umich.edu.

Agenda at a Glance

At-A-Glance Agenda PDF: 
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 7:50am - 5:30pm
SUMMIT ON THE PREVENTION OF CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 7:50am - 8:25am
REGISTRATION & BREAKFAST
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 8:25am - 9:30am
WELCOME/OPENING REMARKS AND KEYNOTE SPEAKER
Rebecca Cunningham, M.D., Associate Vice President for Research-Health Sciences, U-M Office of Research; Director, U-M Injury Prevention Center; Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, and Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan
Mark Schlissel, M.D., Ph.D., President, University of Michigan
Debbie Dingell, U.S. Congresswoman, Representative for Michigan's 12th District
Sue Snyder, First Lady, State of Michigan
KEYNOTE: Mary Sue Coleman, Ph.D., President, Association of American Universities (AAU)
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/wO4Sj2swunc
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 9:30am - 10:00am
AN OVERVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM OF CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT
Sarah DeGue, Ph.D., Senior Health Scientist, Research and Evaluation Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Violence Prevention
Moderator: 
Erin Bonar, PhD, Assistant Professor, Addiction Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan; Sexual Violence Content Lead, U-M Injury Prevention Center
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/_KEDUldANM4
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 10:00am - 10:15am
NETWORKING BREAK
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 10:15am - 11:45am
UNDERSTANDING RISK FACTORS FOR CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT
Maria Testa, Ph.D., Senior Research Scientist, University of Buffalo Research Institute on Addictions
Martie Thompson, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Youth, Family, and Community Studies, and the Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life, Clemson University
Antonia Abbey, Ph.D. Professor, Psychology, Wayne State University
Moderator: 
Erin Bonar, PhD, Assistant Professor, Addiction Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan; Sexual Violence Content Lead, U-M Injury Prevention Center
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/TDJ5dIkWxdw (Testa), https://youtu.be/FsOlM_MdlMI (Thompson)
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 11:45am - 1:30pm
POSTER SESSION AND LUNCH - Michigan League Ballroom (2nd floor)
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 1:30pm - 2:30pm
CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT IN DIVERSE AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS
Heather McCauley, Sc.D., Assistant Professor, Human Development and Family Studies, Core Faculty, Research Consortium on Gender-Based Violence, Core Faculty, Center for Gender in Global Context, Michigan State University
Christine Lindquist, Ph.D., Senior Research Sociologist, RTI International
Moderator: 
Quyen Ngo, PhD, LP, Research Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, U-M Injury Prevention Center
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/oUlKw3SblwY (McCauley), https://youtu.be/wiIJNXmp78M (Lindquist)
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 2:30pm - 3:30pm
EVIDENCE-BASED PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS FOR CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT
Elizabeth Miller, MD, Ph.D., Director, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC; Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Charlene Senn, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, and Women’s and Gender Studies Program, University of Windsor
Moderator: 
Quyen Ngo, PhD, LP, Research Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, U-M Injury Prevention Center
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/v6dq5XSnHso (Miller), https://youtu.be/A5juRS7vPfs (Senn)
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 3:30pm - 3:45pm
NETWORKING BREAK
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 3:45pm - 4:45pm
EVIDENCE-BASED PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS FOR CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT, CONT'D
Ann Coker, Ph.D., M.P.H., Verizon Wireless Endowed Chair, Center for Research on Violence Against Women, University of Kentucky, Professor, Epidemiology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UK College of Medicine
Elise Lopez, Dr.P.H., M.P.H., Assistant Director, Relationship Violence Program, Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona
Moderator: 
Maureen Walton, MPH, PhD, Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan; Associate Director for Child Research, Addiction Center; Associate Director, U-M Injury Prevention Center
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/k22tHLmOZnw (Coker), https://youtu.be/kvOezZtGI9I (Lopez)
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 4:45pm - 5:15pm
DISCUSSION PANEL: UNRESOLVED ISSUES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Robert Freeman, Ph.D., Program Official, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research
Sarah DeGue, Ph.D., Senior Health Scientist, Research and Evaluation Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Violence Prevention
Moderator: 
Maureen Walton, MPH, PhD, Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan; Associate Director for Child Research, Addiction Center; Associate Director, U-M Injury Prevention Center
Session Video: 
https://youtu.be/LRLd9Ab95-s
Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018 - 5:15pm - 5:30pm
CLOSING REMARKS
Rebecca Cunningham, M.D., Associate Vice President for Research-Health Sciences, U-M Office of Research; Director, U-M Injury Prevention Center; Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, and Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan

Presentations

9:30am - 10:00am: Ending Sexual Violence on Campus: Applying the Public Health Model for Prevention
Sarah DeGue, Ph.D.
10:15-10:45am: Risk Factors for College Sexual Victimization: The Central Role of Women's Heavy Episodic Drinking
Maria Testa, PhD
10:45-11:15am; Understanding Risk Factors For Campus Sexual Assault Perpetration
Martie Thompson, PhD
1:30-2:00pm; Sexual Assault Vulnerability and Prevention Among Marginalized College Students: Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Disability
Heather McCauley, ScD
2:00-2:30pm; Sexual Assault on HBCU Campuses
Christine Lindquist, PhD
2:30-3:00pm; Trauma-informed approaches to sexual violence prevention and intervention
Elizabeth Miller, MD, PhD, FSAHM
3:00-3:30pm; The EAAA Sexual Assault Resistance Program: Evidence of lasting efficacy in reducing sexual violence women students experience
Charlene Senn, PhD
3:45-4:15pm; Evidence-Based Prevention Interventions For Campus Sexual Assault - Engaged Bystander Interventions?
Ann Coker, MPH, PhD
4:15-4:45pm; Safer Bars - Help is on the House
Elise Lopez, MPH, DrPH
4:45-5:15pm; Discussion Panel: Unresolved Issues and Future Directions
Robert Freeman, PhD and Sarah DeGue, PhD

Poster Abstracts

RaeAnn Anderson, Kent State University

How frequent is sexual perpetration in college men? A systematic review of reported prevalences from 2000-2016

Purpose: The goal of this study was to systematically review research findings regarding the prevalence of sexual perpetration in college men.

Background: Although approximately 1 in 4 college women report experiencing sexual violence victimization (and most report being victimized by their male peers), the rate of sexual violence perpetration in college men is unknown.

Methods: Empirical studies of male participants published after 1999 (including dissertations) that were available in English, and included a report of sexual perpetration since age 14 (but not only in the past year or less) that were identified in psycINFO or Web of Science databases were included.

Data reduction strategy: Coders independently recorded the prevalence of sexual perpetration, rape, and verbal coercion in each study. Coders also recorded the measurement strategy used to assess the sexual perpetration constructs and administration procedures.

Results: A total of 75 independent samples including 24,823 participants who completed measures of sexual perpetration were included. The prevalence of any level of sexual perpetration ranged widely from 3.3 to 97.7%. The average rate of any level of sexual violence perpetration across studies was 25.2%. The prevalence of rape perpetration ranged from 0.6-33.0%. The rate of verbal coercion ranged from 8.2-73.0%.

Conclusions: The reported frequency of sexual perpetration is highly related to the measurement strategy used. There is greater variability in methods for measuring verbal coercion than for rape.

Innovation and Significance: This study highlights how common sexual violence perpetration is in college men and the need for reliable measurement strategies to learn more about this behavior.

Mellisa Holtzman, Ball State University

New Developments in Sexual Assault Prevention Efforts: Why Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Matter

Purpose: Primary prevention and risk reduction strategies for reducing sexual assault on college campuses have generally been treated as distinct categories of programming, with greater emphasis placed on primary prevention. However, there is both theoretical justification and measurable benefit to synthesizing primary prevention and risk reduction programming. This poster will present findings from evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection seminar that combines these approaches within a single program.

Methods: Elemental has been rigorously assessed using four years (2012-2015) of program and control group data. Students completed pretest, posttest, 6 week, and 6 month follow-up surveys assessing sexual attitudes and knowledge as well as experiences with assault.

Results: Elemental has been consistently shown to be effective in reducing sexual assault risk. Program effects were both direct, in that participation was associated with lower risk of assault, and mediated, in that participation impacted attitudes and beliefs that are empirically linked to risk of later assault. Analyses demonstrate that program students have a nearly 66% reduction in assault risk relative to control group students.

Conclusions: By combining both primary prevention and risk reduction approaches, Elemental is effective at reducing incidences of assault.

Significance: These findings are significant in the field because they illustrate the benefits of a combined programming approach. Although the field has been focused on primary prevention in recent years, research on Elemental and other similar programs suggests an expanded strategy may be more effective. Importantly, the ACHA has altered programming recommendations to this effect. See, for example: http://www.acha.org/documents/resources/guidelines/Addressing_Sexual_Vio...

Erin Bonar, University of Michigan

Evaluating a Brief Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Program for First-Year College Students

Purpose: Comprehensive strategies for campus-based sexual assault prevention should span multiple levels of social ecology (e.g., individual, peer/partner, organizational, and community) blended with universal, selective, and indicated approaches. Campus-based educational programs are one approach that is often implemented, but rarely evaluated. In this poster, we share evaluation data from a sexual assault prevention program, Relationship Remix, administered on campus to first-year students at University of Michigan. Relationship Remix comprises universal prevention and spans multiple socioecological levels by emphasizing individual values and behavior, including some content on bystander intervention, and being delivered by peers (e.g., trained student volunteers).

Methods/Approach: First-year students attended the 1.5 hour group-delivered program during their first fall semester at a large, public Midwestern university. Students completed web-based surveys immediately before and after attending Relationship Remix. We present data on attitudes and knowledge among 2,305 first-year students who were 55.1% female, 70.7% White, and 90.6% heterosexual.

Results: On 8 of 10 survey questions linked to program content assessing knowledge and attitudes, students reported significantly more favorable responses at post-test. For example, students reported greater awareness of campus resources, ability to define consent, and confidence to communicate with sexual partners.

Conclusion and Significance/Contribution: The findings suggest that Relationship Remix has promising, positive impact on students’ attitudes about consensual sex and prevention of sexual misconduct. Future research should examine behavioral outcomes and the efficacy of this program in reducing sexual misconduct within a holistic multipronged prevention strategies. This study provides key information to inform future campus-based prevention programs.

Alyssa Norris, Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, Lifespan

Impulsivity Moderates the Relationship Between Heavy Drinking and Risk of Sexual Assault Among College Women

Purpose: Heavy alcohol use has been consistently implicated in sexual assault risk (Abbey et al., 2001) but does not consistently prospectively predict sexual assault longitudinally (Gidycz et al., 1995; Parks et al., 2014), and reductions in drinking do not always result in decreases in assault risk (Clinton-Sherrod et al., 2011). Impulsivity might account for these discrepant findings.

Women with a history of assault are more likely to be assaulted if they report higher levels of impulsivity (Messman-Moore et al., 2013); however, no studies have examined how impulsivity and alcohol use interact in predicting sexual assault risk.

Methods: Incoming female college students (n = 483) completed a baseline assessment and were followed over the course of their first year. Moderated logistic regression analyses were run using Hayes’s PROCESS macro for SPSS with baseline peak BAC as the predictor, trait impulsivity as the moderator, and first-year rape (unwanted oral, vaginal, or anal sex due to incapacitation, threats, or use of force) as the outcome. Analyses were restricted to those 327 women who reported consuming alcohol.

Results: Risk of experiencing rape significantly increased as alcohol use increased, but only for women at mean and lower levels of impulsivity. 

Conclusion: Women high in impulsivity exhibit an elevated risk of rape regardless of their alcohol use, indicating that they are already engaging in behaviors that likely expose them to greater contextual risk of assault. 

Innovation & Significance: Thus, it is imperative that integrated prevention programs target impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as well as alcohol use.

Chelsey Bowman, Boston University

Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Gender Differences in Athletic Identity and Rape Myth Acceptance among Collegiate Student-Athletes

Statement of Purpose: Sexual violence on college campuses is a major public health crisis (Krebs et al., 2016). In contrast, very little research has focused on female student-athletes (Moynihan & Banyard, 2009). This poster will explore the relationship between rape myth acceptance, athletic identity, and responses to bystander programming among student-athletes.

Methods/Approach: Collegiate student-athletes (n=251) from a large Division I university completed online self-report surveys in spring 2017. Measures included the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale Short Form Revised (McMahon & Farmer, 2011), the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer et al., 1993), and questions about their experiences with the school’s mandated bystander prevention program (modeled after Bringing in the Bystander).

Results: Male student-athletes were significantly more likely to report higher acceptance of rape myths than females (2.00 vs. 1.66), and to agree or strongly agree that the prevention program was useless (33% vs. 19%). There was no significant association between rape myth acceptance and athletic identity.

Conclusions: Results challenge prevailing stereotypes about athletic identity and rape myth acceptance. However, results highlight that male student-athletes had higher acceptance of rape myths and less favorable views of the bystander prevention programming than female student-athletes.

Innovation & Significance to the Field: Findings highlight the importance of modifying prevention programs to better engage male student-athletes, which may in turn lead to increased bystander behaviors on college campuses.

Lindsay Cannon, University of Michigan

Patient Satisfaction with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Services and Post-Assault Resource Utilization at a University Health Center Compared to an Emergency Department

Statement of Purpose: In the United States 1.3 million women experience rape each year, with current estimates of 22 million female rape survivors. Further, 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men experience sexual assault in college. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were developed in the 1970s to improve care for sexual violence survivors by providing medical forensic exams by specially trained nurses. The purpose of this study is to address a gap in the literature about how the location of SANE exams impacts satisfaction with services and use of post-assault resources.

Methods/Approach: Participants completed satisfaction surveys via Qualtrics following SANE exams at the Emergency Department (ED) (N=49) or a university health center (UHC) (N=9) in the same city from January 2016-April 2018. A second survey about experiences accessing/barriers to utilizing post-assault services was emailed to participants 4-6 weeks post-exam.

Results: Preliminary analyses indicate that patient satisfaction with privacy, healthcare facilities, and SANE providers did not differ between the two settings. College-aged survivors who received UHC services were significantly more likely to seek resources for their additional post-assault healthcare needs than those who received ED services (p=.02).

Conclusions: Survivors found UHC services as satisfactory as services provided at the gold standard ED and were more likely to utilize post-assault healthcare services.

Innovation & Significance to the Field: Incorporation of SANE exams into the UHC provides additional post-assault care options for college-aged survivors who may have more positive long-term health outcomes due to greater likelihood of accessing post-assault healthcare.

Nona Maria Gronert, University of Wisconsin–Madison

Solutions to Sexual Assault and Harassment on one University's Campus

Statement of purpose: Universities require students, faculty, and staff to learn about the particular university’s systems that address sexual assault and sexual harassment. However, the current systems are relatively new and continue to change. The changes in university sexual assault regulation have inspired increased prevention efforts and new sociological research. In this research, I investigate how the governance of sexual assault and harassment has changed at one large, public, Midwestern university from 1972 through 2017.

Methods: The research uses 1972 as the starting point for data collection since Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1974 has become central to the regulation of campus sexual assault and harassment. I conducted a content analysis of articles in two student campus newspapers to construct a history of sexual assault and harassment at the university. The newspapers were coded for mentions of mobilizations, institutionalizations, the discourse on the framing of sexual assault and harassment as problems, and the discourse on the proposed solutions to the problems of sexual assault and harassment.

Conclusions and significance to the field: Preliminary findings indicate that sexual assault interventions, both mobilizations and institutionalizations, correspond with the dominant proposed solutions discourse of each decade. The proposed solutions discourse indicates who has the responsibility to prevent sexual assault, and the onus for prevention shifts over time from women to all individuals on campus, regardless of their gender. Ultimately, the governance of sexual assault and harassment illustrates upheavals in gender politics as well as university systems.

 

Michelle Munro-Kramer, University of Michigan

Adapting a Life Skills Application to Address Interpersonal Relationships and Sexual Violence Prevention among College Students

Statement of Purpose: Sexual violence is a public health crisis with 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men experiencing sexual assault in college. There is a need for holistic primary prevention interventions. Past research emphasizes life skills and social competency as approaches that address individuals within their ecological context. We used the ADAPT-ITT model to adapt a pre-existing web-based application (WebApp) previously used in a community setting.

Methods/Approach: A quasi-experimental design was used to conduct a pilot feasibility test of MKit by randomizing two residence halls at one large, public university in the Midwestern United States. The control group (n=139) received the university’s usual programming around sexual violence and healthy relationships. The intervention group (n=122) received the usual programming plus access to MKit. Evaluation of acceptability, feasibility, and safety will be assessed at baseline, 3-months, and 5-months.

Results: The pilot study is currently in progress and analyses will focus on the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of the MKit WebApp.

Conclusions: MKit provides a promising framework to serve as a resource and reinforce messages regarding healthy relationships and sexual violence within the university context.

Innovation & Significance to the Field: By incorporating a holistic life skills approach, the WebApp has the potential to address a wide range of student needs that may impact healthy relationships and sexual violence. Pending the results of this feasibility trial, future work will evaluate the MKit WebApp in a multi-site trial within multiple university contexts.

Hanna Berlin, University of Michigan

SafeMD: Establishing a sexual assault awareness and education curriculum for medical students

Background: Sexual assault is a pervasive issue that necessitates address by the medical community, including designing an effective curriculum to provide the knowledge for medical professionals to prevent sexual assault in their communities and provide healthcare to survivors of sexual assault. 

Program Description or Study Design: Students at University of Michigan established SafeMD, a peer-led organization that addresses the shortcomings of both curricular and extra-curricular efforts to address sexual assault. To accomplish this mission, we developed education seminars, conducted a needs assessment and established an inter-graduate school alliance centered around sexual assault awareness and education. 

Results: To educate our community, SafeMD launched two main programs: Allyhood Training and M1 Orientation. In Allyhood Training, medical students received education about the prevalence of sexual assault, the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner program, and the legal aspects of reporting sexual assault from experts in each field. During M1 orientation, first year medical students were provided with an overview of sexual assault and the resources available to medical students.

SafeMD also conducted a “Needs Assessment” by sending a survey to all preclinical medical students regarding sexual assault education. This allowed students to provide input on areas that both SafeMD and the medical school administration needed to address.

Lastly, SafeMD created an inter-graduate school collaborative known as SafeMichigan that allows for collaboration between graduate students working to improve education about sexual assault in their respective graduate schools.

Lessons Learned: SafeMD’s work has shown the potential for students to organize and improve their own education about sexual assault through peer-led collaboration. It shows student desire to be prepared to address sexual assault during their education and during their profession as a healthcare provider. Further, it shows the potential for collaboration between graduate students to share resources and provide opportunities for inter-school education about sexual assault. SafeMD’s effective training program could be implemented across graduate programs to allow all members of our graduate community to be better prepared to support survivors of sexual assault and reduce the number of passive bystanders on campus.

Future Applications and Next Steps: This work acts as a framework for other medical schools to adopt similar peer-led sexual assault awareness and prevention groups. With further development and assessment of this intervention, future physicians will be able to better support both those in the medical community and patients who have survived sexual assault.

Maya Luetke, Indiana University

Quantifying the magnitude and potential influence of missing data in campus sexual assault surveys: A systematic review of surveys, 2010-2016

Statement of Purpose. To quantify the amount of missing data in campus sexual assault surveys, and understand how missing data may influence conclusions drawn from the surveys.

Methods. Using the 62 members of the American Association of Universities as a sampling frame, we systematically reviewed 40 campus sexual assault surveys conducted from 2010-2016. We constructed a pseudo-population of the total population targeted across schools, creating records proportional to the respective response rate and reported sexual assault prevalence. We then simulated the effects of 9 scenarios where the prevalence among non-responders differed from responders on overall sexual assault prevalence.

Results. The surveys represented a total female undergraduate population of 317,387 with only 77,966 (24.6%) survey responses. Among responders, 20.4% reported experiences of sexual assault. However, prevalence of sexual assault could theoretically range from 5.0 to 80.4% under extreme assumptions about prevalence in non-responders, with smaller but still significant differences observed with less extreme assumptions.

Conclusions. Missing data are widespread in campus sexual assault surveys. Conclusions drawn from these incomplete data are highly sensitive to assumptions about the sexual assault prevalence among non-responders.

Significance. The prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses is significantly influenced by nonresponse in recent data collection efforts. This study is the first to examine how this prevalence would change when making educated assumptions about non-responders. Quantifying the scope of campus sexual assault is critical for informing campus sexual assault policy and law, the implementation of evidence-based prevention programs, and the provision sufficient campus resources to support survivors.

Patricia Mahoney, Johns Hopkins University

Sexual assault on college campuses: Literature review and Haddon Matrix gap analysis of intervention research

1. Statement of Purpose: This poster summarizes research on evaluated interventions addressing sexual assault on college campuses in the U.S. and examines the literature using the Haddon Matrix, one of the most widely used frameworks in the injury prevention field.

2. Methods/Approach: A total of 29 peer-reviewed publications between 2001-2016 met the inclusion criteria, are included in the review, and were classified by their prevention phase (before, during, or after an assault), and whether they addressed the victim, the perpetrator or the college environment.

3. Results: Outcomes measured included knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behaviors. Only 11 (38%) studies reported any significant outcomes of their programs. The Bystander model was most widely represented. The Haddon Matrix revealed that few studies have focused on the perpetrator (agent), there were no studies of the physical environment, and the only studies evaluating an intervention targeted at the social environment were Bystander models.

4. Conclusions: More research is needed using methods other than self report as well as longer follow up periods.  Interventions that target the perpetrator and outer levels of the socio-ecological model are needed to advance the field and identify high impact interventions.

5. Innovation & Significance to the field: This is the first known study to apply the Haddon Matrix to the public health issue of sexual assault perpetration. Doing so has clearly identified gaps in the current approach to intervention research.

Quyen Ngo, University of Michigan

Correlates of Sexual Assault Perpetration Among College Students: The Moderating Role of Mindfulness and Empathy

Aims: Sexual assault has numerous adverse effects, particularly among college students. Drug and alcohol use are co-occurring risk behaviors with sexual assault perpetration. To date, there is little information regarding factors that may reduce the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This study examines the role of substance use, mindfulness, and empathy in sexual assault perpetration (completed and attempted) among college youth.

Methods: Data came from a national sample recruited via social media advertisements. This study subsample includes 2,061 emerging adults attending college (18-25 years).

Results: Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared to non-perpetrators, those reporting ASA were significantly more likely to binge drink (OR=1.95; 95% CI=1.03-3.68); those with CSA were more likely to be male (OR=1.92; 95% CI=1.33-2.76). Trait mindfulness was negatively associated with ASA (OR=0.96; 95% CI=0.93-1.00) and CSA (OR=0.96; 95% CI=0.94-0.99). Empathy was not associated with ASA nor CSA. Binge drinking and substance use were not associated with CSA in this sample.

Conclusions: This study indicates that there are distinct differences in factors associated with ASA vs. CSA. Addressing binge drinking may mitigate the likelihood of attempted sexual assaults, and mindfulness may be an important factor in interventions to reduce sexual assault perpetration.

Innovation/Significance: This study signifies one of the few to examine individual factors that increase (alcohol) and decrease (mindfulness) the likelihood of sexual violence perpetration. These findings contribute significantly to sexual violence perpetration interventions.

Morgan PettyJohn, Michigan State University

#HowIWillChange: Engaging Boys and Men in the #MeToo Movement

Statement of purpose: This study aimed to assess public discourse about dismantling rape culture via Twitter hashtag #HowIWillChange. #HowIWillChange was started in response to the #MeToo movement and was intended to engage males by asking them to evaluate their role in sustaining rape culture.

Methods: We collected 10% of publicly available tweets containing #HowIWillChange from Twitter’s API (n = 18,000) on October 26, 2017 via NCapture software. We eliminated non-English language tweets, news articles, advertisements, re-tweets, and image-only tweets, resulting in 3,182 tweets for analysis. Researchers met to discuss key themes after coding 10% and 25% of the data. The remainder of the data was coded after key themes had been established.

Results: witters users described 1) actions for; and 2) barriers to combatting rape culture. Actions included confronting toxic masculinity, teaching the next generation, speaking out, and working towards egalitarianism/elevating women. Barriers to changing rape culture included attacking men’s perceived weaknesses, personal refusals to change, sexist or benevolently sexist views, and denial of the existence of rape culture.

Conclusions/Innovation & Significance to the Field: This study provides insight regarding the current perceptions of rape culture following the #MeToo movement, specifically from a platform intended to engage boys and men. Prevention work and bystander interventions on college campuses can emphasize components of psychoeducation about the socialization process of toxic masculinity and sexism, and better equip men to withstand potential criticism for speaking out about violence against women. Further, this discourse highlights the utility of social media for discussing social issues.

Meredith Philyaw-Kotov, University of Michigan

What Undergraduates Want in Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Programming: Findings from a Formative Research Study 

Statement of Purpose: Campus sexual assault is a prevalent and alarming public health concern. While many school-based sexual assault prevention intervention programs exist, few have strong empirical support in college settings. There is a pressing need for formative research with undergraduates to shape the development of relevant and effective, multi-pronged approaches for preventing campus sexual assault.

Methods/Approach: Full-time undergraduate sophomores at the University of Michigan (U-M) were recruited via registrar emails and campus flyers to participate in audio-recorded, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews (n=19) in Summer/Fall 2016. Participants were asked to provide feedback about desirable characteristics of sexual assault prevention programming, including intervention content, format, and delivery mechanism. Interview audio files were transcribed and codes were generated using thematic analysis. Two trained Research Assistants (RAs) independently coded each theme using NVivo 11.

Results: Participant demographics (47.4% male, 57.9% White/Not Hispanic) resemble campus enrollment statistics. Findings suggest that peer-based programming administered in-person to individuals or small, mixed-gender groups of unfamiliar students is more acceptable to undergraduates than other intervention formats (e.g., delivered in classes). Participants emphasized the importance of new programming providing a forum where students can talk openly and seriously about sexual assault. Peer survivor testimonies and skits were mentioned as potentially effective ways to deliver content.

Conclusions: As part of their sexual assault prevention education, U-M undergraduates welcome opportunities for serious discussions led by relatable peers who understand the dynamics of campus life.

Innovation/Significance: Our findings warrant future studies examining the effectiveness of campus-based, discussion-oriented sexual assault prevention intervention programs.

Rogério M. Pinto, University of Michigan

Artistic Engagement Helps Students Articulate Unique Solutions to Sexual Violence: Implications for Institutional Reform

Statement of Purpose: In 2015, Columbia University developed the Sexual Respect and Community Citizenship Initiative to engage students around campus sexual assault prevention. Students were required to attend educational workshops, watch videos/movies, read articles, or create artistic outputs reflecting viewpoints on consequences of and solutions to sexual assault. We report on the latter. 

Methods/Approach: A university-wide committee representing students, faculty, staff, and administrators, including the authors, developed the initiative, “Sexual Respect: Columbia Students Creating Art.” This initiative supported students’ production of artistic outputs to inspire campus sexual assault prevention.

Results: Students submitted 567 art pieces: poetry/prose (306); visual (181); multimedia (24); film/video (19); music (16); performance (14); dance (4); and drama (3). All submissions were showcased online (artsoption.columbia.edu). Select submissions (64) were featured at an Arts Exhibit at Columbia in April 2015, to which all Columbia community members were invited. Students, professional artists, curators, and professors explored prevention of campus sexual assault by contemplating and analyzing artistic creations.

Conclusions: Student artwork inspired new conversations and provided outlets for expressing frustrations, including those about Columbia and the Initiative itself. Students who previously felt silenced found a new voice and healing. These perspectives inspired changes to Columbia’s sexual violence response efforts, like counseling, new student orientation, and student health.

Innovation & Significance: Artistic engagement sparked institutional change supporting sexual respect. Art and performance empowered students with new ways of expressing opinions around emotional issues. Art can powerfully inform campus sexual assault prevention efforts when generated for communities by their own community members.

Charles Sanky, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Addressing Sexual Violence When Dissonance Among Community Members Becomes a Social Norm in Institutions of Higher Education: A Case Study of Columbia University

Statement of Purpose: Sexual violence in higher education fosters an environment of physical, emotional, and social trauma for survivors and bystanders. This poster explores factors that exacerbate distrust and dissonance between administrators and students. 

Methods/Approach: This case study focuses on the authors’ experiences at Columbia University, their reflections on institutional policies and initiatives, Columbia student activism (2012-16), and campus news, blog, and opinion publications.

Results: Student publications reveal that sexual violence survivors and allies perceived the University as complacent, condescending, and aggressive. Administrators were perceived to trivialize students’ concerns by using delay tactics and bureaucracy. Specifically, the 2015 Sexual Respect and Community Citizenship Initiative attempted but did not seem to bridge the diverse campus communities trying to address sexual violence. The Initiative, perceived as a top-down approach, required students to participate in trainings and reflections. Many students criticized the Initiative as failing to engage all members of the University community, such as faculty.

Conclusions: Personal reflections and analysis of campus publications can inform sexual assault prevention by revealing a disconnect among a university’s constituencies. This dissonance undermines an institution’s capacity to address sexual violence. We suggest institutional flexibility and respect for students’ grassroots approaches as ways to prevent sexual violence and the injuries it inflicts on entire universities.

Innovation & Significance: Future interventions should consider that sexual violence thrives in inflexible organizations and when community dissonance becomes a social norm. Using community citizenship approaches, addressing structural barriers, and creating frameworks for university-wide, honest discussions may enhance sexual violence prevention efforts.

Emily Sheridan-Fulton, University of Michigan

A retrospective descriptive analysis of SANE records of College-Aged Individuals at a Midwestern Emergency Department from 2002-2017

Statement of Purpose: An estimated 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men endure sexual assault during their college career, making rape the most frequent violent crime occurring on campus. Since the 1970s, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs have provided medical treatment and forensic exams to survivors seeking aid. The purpose of this study is: 1) to describe the characteristics of individuals seeking services for sexual assault at an Emergency Department between 2002-2017, and 2) to explore trends related to sexual assault over this 16-year period, including disability status and the presence of drugs/alcohol.

Methods/Approach: We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of SANE records from 2002-2017 (N = 856) at a large Midwestern university Emergency Department. These data include demographics, characteristics of the assault, description of physical injuries, and evidence collected. Data for college-aged patients (18-24) were analyzed using SPSS.

Results: Analyses are in progress. Preliminary results indicate that a large percentage of survivors’ report their experiences of sexual violence involved drugs and/or alcohol. Additionally, a large proportion of survivors report having a mental and/or physical disability.

Conclusions: Survivors of sexual violence seeking services at Michigan Medicine’s Emergency Department tend to be a vulnerable population, supporting previous research.

Innovation & Significance to the Field: Results from this research further the understanding of college-aged survivors seeking services, which will inform interventions to prevent sexual assault on and around university campuses. Results also point to the need for systematic data collection to inform service provision within healthcare settings and regions.

AnnaLise Trudell, Western Health Sciences

Understanding male-to-female sexual harassment and aggression in bars and clubs

Statement of Purpose. The highly sexualized culture of bars and clubs where harassment of women is normative and men have heightened concerns about masculinity provides an environment conducive to alcohol-related sexual harassment and aggression (ASHA). Although efforts are being made to address workplace harassment, bars and clubs remain high risk environments for sexual harassment and assault of women. In this poster, we describe our research regarding male-to-female ASHA in bars/clubs.

Methods. We summarize evidence from: 1) follow-up online surveys from groups of women recruited in bar districts; and 2) focus groups with young adult men.

Results. Over 50% of female bargoers reported ASHA on a single night out. Having a lower status position in their peer group was associated with ASHA among women who had consumed 5+ drinks. Male focus group participants indicated that: a) ASHA is normal and acceptable in bars/clubs although clearly recognized as sexual assault elsewhere; b) ASHA stems from mixed signals, misunderstandings, and innocent advances, but is also done to amuse peers and in response to peer pressure; and c) it is mostly women’s responsibility to avoid, prevent or stop ASHA.

Conclusions. Prevention needs to focus on changing men’s normative attitudes and beliefs regarding ASHA, including bar policies to prevent ASHA.

Innovation & Significance. Many students are frequent bargoers; therefore, this research has significant implications for understanding and preventing student sexual victimization. Prevention work needs to address the heteronormative culture of bars that fosters traditional constructs of masculinity and allows sexual harassment and aggression to go unaddressed.

Miriam Gleckman-Krut, University of Michigan

Other People's Problem: An Analysis of Student Conversations about Campus Sexual Misconduct

Statement of Purpose: How do sophomore college students understand sexual violence among their peers?

Methods: This study utilizes interview and focus group data collection from thirty-five total students in 2016.

Results: I find that respondents use long-term monogamous sexual partnerships as another justification for the “me exemption” – a documented phenomenon in which individuals exempt themselves the possibility of experiencing discrimination and victimhood. Not only do individuals exclude themselves as possible victims, they do not consider their partners as possible perpetrators. Next, I am interested in how respondents perceive and talk about sexual assault among their friends and people like them. I find that people extend the “me exemption” even further. Not only do individuals have difficulty narrating their own experiences and their own partners as violent. They also do not unilaterally apply relevant legal labels to their proximate social networks. My data indicates a similar trend among potential perpetrators. People are unlikely to label their friends as “assailants” or their actions as “violent.”

Significance: This paper contributes both a case and theory to the legal consciousness and organizational change literature within sociology. It also extends prior research on sexual violence as a structural problem. Whereas research on sexual harassment within organizations has documented individuals’ narrations of their own experiences, these data indicate how people make sense of sexual violence within their social networks.